The concept of an Electric Motor is based on the interaction between Magnetic field and Electrical energy. The magnetic field created by the permanent magnet or electromagnet interacts with the current flowing in the wire. The force exerted on the wire is dependent on the strength of the permanent magnetic field, length of wire passing through the field, and amount of current. When the wire and magnetic field are at 90 degrees to each other, the motor effect is greatest and weakest.
Electrical energy The electrical energy for electric motors is created by a process called alternating current. The current flows back and forth in a regulated rate, 60 hertz in the United States. This force, or torque, causes the rotor to rotate. This is the reason why electric motors are used in modern applications. Among other things, electrical energy is a renewable resource. When used correctly, electric motors can last two years or more.
Magnetic field The basic electric motor utilizes a permanent magnet. A single loop of circuit-carrying conductor called the armature is fed with current from an outside source. The positive brush is stationary while the negative brush is moved. The commutator bars keep the motor from reversing. To understand the magnetic field of electric motors, it helps to first understand how magnets interact with one another. Afterward, you can apply the "left-hand rule" to remember the direction of an electric motor.
The magnetic force of an electric motor is created by two powerful permanent magnets that are placed close to each other. These magnets exert a real force on each other. Consequently, a magnetic field must be controlled to do work. Once this is achieved, an electrical conductor will produce a magnetic field. The magnetic force field will be ascribed with different amplitudes depending on the amount of current flowing through the conductor.
Rotor conductors An electric motor's rotor conductors are made of copper, aluminum, or other alloy. Generally, the rotor conductors are not insulated from the core and never have an equal number of slots. Unlike the stator conductors, which are made of steel, the rotor conductors are made of aluminum, copper, or brass. They are shaped to prevent dead spots.
Electric current flows in a rotating object due to a process known as induction. When a conductor moves through or passes a magnetic field, it induces an electric current. This process is called induced current flow. The magnetic field in an electric motor is not directly connected to the voltage source, but rather is induced by the relative motion of the rotor and the stator. The rotor conductors cut across the lines of flux in the stator magnetic field.
End cap The end cap for an electric motor is a component of the electrical motor. The end cap is molded from dielectric synthetic plastic and incorporates an inventive concept. The cap's outer configuration includes cylindrical and linear peripheral portions and ear-shaped ears. It also includes a hole 32 through which tie rods can extend. The two components are attached by a plastic hinge. The end cap is configured with an axial dimension greater than that of the flange 44.
A typical end cap for an electric motor includes a rotatable bearing, a plurality of brush retaining fingers spaced about the bearing, and a central recess. Each brush set has two fingers of dielectric synthetic plastic material spaced parallel to each other. Each finger has a distinctive inner configuration that defines a guide that receives a conventional electric motor brush. This configuration is convenient for automated assembly and is characterized by its low cost.