In-Wheel Motors for Low Speed Motor Wheels
Unlike an open differential, which is a mechanical device that allows wheels on an axle to rotate at the same speed, an in-wheel motor is an electrical machine that produces torque. These devices can be installed on the front, rear, or both sides of a vehicle. An in-wheel motor is controlled by a vehicle control unit (VCU). The VCU communicates with the motor system using a CAN bus. The VCU sends torque demands to the motor system every few milliseconds. If the VCU demands a torque, the motor system develops that torque at the wheel hub. The VCU also reports the maximum torque available and the health of the motor. This allows the VCU to run control loops.
In-wheel motors are a more effective way to drive a vehicle than an active differential. The benefits of an in-wheel motor include lower cost, easier implementation, and superior wheel speed management. In-wheel motors can drive all four wheels of a vehicle or just the front wheels, and the latter option is more popular because it offers better handling. An in-wheel motor also provides a seamless braking torque, which extends the vehicle's ability to maintain control.
Wheel speeds are affected by a number of factors, such as tyre properties, road surface undulations, and the natural speed of the wheel. For example, if one wheel on an axle has a low traction limit, it will spin up if the torque is applied to it. This occurs because the tyre-road interface is limited, and it can't absorb the torque. When a wheel loses traction, the traction control system applies brakes to that wheel. This type of traction control is particularly useful in off-road vehicles, where poor traction can cause a wheel to spin up.
In-wheel motors are also capable of controlling a traction control system. This can be used to prevent spinning wheels during cornering. In some cases, the traction control system may be overlaid with stability control to help reduce oversteer, understeer, and loss of traction. In addition, an in-wheel motor can be used to improve vehicle agility at low speeds, thereby improving a driver's overall experience.
An in-wheel motor is capable of producing a high torque that gives the vehicle a high speed. However, it is important to note that it doesn't mean that the speed of the vehicle will be higher. The torque will be reduced as the vehicle accelerates. This is because of the way in which the motor is designed. In addition, it is possible to have a higher gear than the first gear. For example, a 20:1 ratio can be chosen for a first gear. The higher the gear, the less torque is required to get the same acceleration.
In-wheel motors can be controlled by a VCU, or by an electronic open differential, or by a simple vehicle control system. These are technologies that enable the in-wheel motor to be controlled, allowing the wheel speeds of the motors to be independent of each other.